E-Textiles and Wearables I#

Reflections + Objective:#

It is difficult to say with certainty that electronics on the body are in fact the next great merge of innovation. On one hand we are increasingly dependent on electronics to aid us with our daily interactions with the external world and thus bringing this technology closer to our bodies would complement the capacity of our interactions and experiences with the world. On the other hand, in an age where the depleation and equal distribution of resources has imminent implications on the manner in which our external world will be shaped, is it ethical to continue to mine and apply an increasing amount of resources to our human bodies for the sake of even more external stimuli?

This is a hard question which will need to be critically addressed as this type of unification becomes more of a reality.

My objective in applying wearable electronics will be to aid the capacity of our senses for purposes of wellbeing and conveing a sensual feedback for the user within selfpractices such as yoga.


Soft bodies + embedding hardware:
How flexible is it?
What does it feel like?
Transparency versus opaqueness of computational elements on clothing

Circuits 101:
(V) VOLTAGE: Electrical pressure or force between 2 points
(I) AMPS: Rate at which electrical charge flows
(R) Resistance: Opposition to current flow measured in OHMS (Ω).

Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs)
Wiring LEDs

Input + Output
Arduino: Types of Sensors
Pull-Up and Pull-Down Resistors

E-Textiles + Soft Sensors
6 Easy DIY Soft Components
Kobakant DIY Textile Sensor Demos
E-Textile Lounge
How to Make a Pressure Sensor
Soft Switch + Flex Sensor
Hard to Soft Connections

Coding for Arduino
Arduino Language Reference
Using Analog Input Pins

[Digital] LED Circuit with Clasp Closure + Switch#

LED Embroidered Collar Neckpiece from Catherine Euale on Vimeo.


Collar: Simple Digital LED Citcuit: Fritzing

[Analog Circuit] Differential Pressure Sensor with LED Output#

I crafted these accupressure gloves by following a tutorial on pressure sensors with sticker LEDs and an instructables tutorial for textile pressure sensors.

Circuit Sticker Tutorial 5: DIY Pressure Sensor#

Instructables Tutorial#

ETextile Electronics: Differential Pressure Sensor


For the purposes of this tutorial, you will need to download the following software:



Swatch Code#

This is a modified version of the basic example arduino sketch for analog input using the swatch for my differential pressure sensor as input and an RGB LED as output.

int sensorPin = A11;    // select the input pin for the potentiometer
int ledBlue = 10;     // select the pin for the LED
int sensorValue = 0;  // variable to store the value coming from the sensor
int threshold = 500;

void setup() {
  // declare the ledPin as an OUTPUT:
  pinMode(ledBlue, OUTPUT);

void loop() {

 int sensorValue = analogRead(sensorPin);

    Serial.println (sensorValue);
  delay (100);

  if (sensorValue < threshold) {
   digitalWrite(led, HIGH);
   } else 
  digitalWrite(led, LOW);



Preliminary sketches; too many pressure points.

Less pressure points, connected in parallel. This connection worked only until the second point, after which, the resistance kept adding up and was too large for the LED to turn on at all.

1. I used an iron on fabric fusing for the traces, and found when I tested the gloves that I damaged the traces with the heat, my readings were inconsistant and therefore the LEDs did not always respond according to the pressure applied to the pads.

2. I used metal grommets to use as “hard to soft” connectors for alligator clips to hook up to arduino circuit, these were too large and make the fabric pucker, making it difficult for traces not to touch.

3. I secured the connections with solder (this is not the best solution to making good connections in my opinion as the solder can actually away from the conductive fabric and damage the trace).

4. I chose to connect all of the positive pads to one pin and all of the negative pads to ground. This method works only if your readings are consistant enough that your “threshold” (the number you choose from your Serial.print readings at which you activate your output) can be the same for all positive pads and negative pads.

Code [Accupressure Gloves Prototype #1]#

int led = 0;
int brightness = 0;    // how bright the LED is
int fadeAmount = 10;    // how many points to fade the LED by
int sensorPinPlus = A0;
int sensorPinMinus = A1;
int sensorValue = 0;  // variable to store the value coming from the sensor
int threshold = 500; //must be lower

// the setup routine runs once when you press reset:
void setup() {                
  // initialize the digital pin as an output.
  pinMode(led, OUTPUT);     
  pinMode(sensorPinPlus, INPUT);
  pinMode(sensorPinMinus, INPUT);


// the loop routine runs over and over again forever:
void loop() {

 int sensorValue0 = analogRead(sensorPinPlus);
 int sensorValue1 = analogRead(sensorPinMinus);

  if(sensorValue0 > 20){
      brightness += fadeAmount;
      if(brightness > 255){brightness=255;}

  if(sensorValue > 20){
      brightness -= fadeAmount;
      if(brightness < 0){brightness=0;}



Catherine.Euale @ Fabricademy 2018 - 2019 ☮

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