6. Computational Couture
Inspiration and ideas
From Kate Spade brand (I know is not a good reference) but sometimes it has something good like this assembly system concept idea. I imagined this made out of 3D printed to dont waste material. Also I follow Julia Davy from the US, I like the way she made 3D printed wearable dresses. Janne Kyttanen is an industrial designer with some 3d printed expertise. And Nervous System that makes my mind blow with their projects.
For this week I really wanted to learn Grasshopper so I did a 3D modeling with hexagon grid. Also wanted so much to learn how to 3D print over fabric so I did many trials and also tried to make assambles to create a 3D printed surface.
With Grasshopper we have the opportunity to create surfaces with 3d geometries that can be connected with algorithms to make it parametric. That means is posible to create organic structures and control them depending on what we want. Knowing this I wante to create a bracelet 3d Printed over fabric. So the upper side of the Wrist is high and well form figures and underneath the wrist I want it plane and basic figures.
I'm really a beginner with this program. I decided to follow a tutorial and understand every step of the process. I chose a tutorial with atractor points and hexagonal grid. Here's the link
So this is what I did:
Software: - Grasshopper - Rhinoceros
This is the model
You can follow this Tutorial from Instractubles. Some of the things worked for me.. not other like using tape I didn't like it because doesnt keep the fabric in place so I prefered clips.
First to 3D print we need to make sure the file is saved in .STL and also with not open objects option. In my case the machine I used is a Makerbot and is not open source so they have their own software.
What I used: - Filaflex 1.75 mm filament - Makerbot Machine and Software. - Elastic fabric (In fact so thin. I think it was a mix between poliester and nylon) - Software settings:
- Extruder temperature: 210 Celsius degrees
- Print Speed: 15 mm/s
- Infill Density: 35%
- Infill Layer Height: 0,20 mm
- Number of Shells: 4
- Outside Layer Height: 0,20 mm
- Thickness 0,70 mm
- No Raft and No Supports
- Retraction Distance: 1,3 mm
- Retraction Speed: 25 mm/s
- Aprox time: 1 hour
The experience printing with fabric was interesting. The goal is to find a fabric where the filament is totally attached. For this the filament must get ¨inside the fibers of the textile¨. That´s why the extruder must press the fabric not so much to brake it but enough to fill it. First set the machine. Most of them must been calibrated using a paper sheet and it must pass not so light but not so tight in between the extruder and the different points in the bed. In the makerbot there is no need to do it. The ideal is to place the fabric on the bed (I found is better when is used a glass or acrylic in the bed because the filament sticks much easier) the most streched as possible, so the extruder is not going to drag it and damage it. In this case I used clips to keep the fabric in place. But is better when a framework is done specially to place the fabric in it and this fits the size of the bed.
Set the machine: Put the filament. Find the option to change fillament on your machine. Usually the extruder is heated up. Otherwise set the temperature and heat the extruder manually to extract the fillament you are not going to use and put the one you have chosen. If you are not sure about the degrees you can always find on internet or check the fillament roll information.
This are my trials
At my first trial I did place the fabric correctly but the extruder was pressing too much and dragged the fabric. Still it was nice to see the result. The 3D printed was a thin first layer so it made pretty waves on the unstreched fabric.
On the second one I found the right extruder pressing. Usually is better when you ¨take care¨ of the printing at least when the first layer is completed. When the 3D pinted layer has more thickness the fabric waves changes for a more density result. At the end I cut it and it losted the tensions the fabric created. I used it as a Bracelet like I wanted from the beginnig.
Taking it out
You can download the file here in OS Circular Fashion :)
I tried another machine (REPRAP) with a rigid filament (PLA) and fabric (Cotton with polyester). The result wasn´t that interesting. The material didn´t allow the fabric to change its shape. And also the fabric wasn´t so stretcht.
In conclusion depending on wich is going to be the application it is possible to use PLA or a rigid filament. I found the PLA doesn´t attach as well as Filaflex. And also depends on how open are the fibers and the pression of the extruder. Be carefull with the clips. Make sure they are not going to touch any component of the machine because this can brake something.
Other trials on fabric
I wanted to try more in fabrics. So I did this models to see how the final result was.
Software I use: - Rhinocheros - Reprap 3D printer - Software Cura - Filament Filaflex - Settings: - Extrusor temperature: 215 Celsius degrees - Bed temperature: 45 Celsius degrees
Trial 1. Fabric: Stretched tull
The goal was to make the fabric shrink after the 3D printed was finished. I stretched the fabric as much as posible on axes x and y.
The shape worked quite well. But in this fabric the filament didn't stick that good. If the printing is pull it will fell off the fabric.
Fabric: Cotton and Polyester (only stretched in x direction) Filament: Filaflex 1.75 mm Machine and software: Makerbot Settings: Same as the first one.
I did two options. First "stretch in X direction" and then "fabric stretched in Y direction".
- As the fabric is thick and also the size of the 3D printer the result are kind of little waves but not a significant shape.
- The fabric dind´t change to create a shape. But the fillament sticked quite well and it could work for different purposes.
Chain and surfaces
To create a chain I did a pattern using inspiration from different tiles. Then made an assemble like a hinge in both sides. I left 0,4 space to don´t allow the walls to touch. Otherwise the assemble is not going to work.
Model Software: Solidworks and Rhinoceros
3D Printing Time: 1 hour Machine: Software: Cura Material: PLA Settings: - Extruder temperature: 210 Celsius degrees - Bed temperature: 60 Celsius degrees
After making the chain it is possible to duplicate the pattern and make a surface.
Time: 1 hour Machine: Software: Cura Material: PLA Settings: - Extruder temperature: 210 Celsius degrees - Bed temperature: 60 Celsius degrees
After this I would like to apply this surface into a T-shirt. Such a decoration for a garment. For me is interesting to start using other materials for every day cloth we use. In fact I am already using the 3D printed products I did in this assignment.