2. DIGITAL BODIES#
The body as an object of art#
There is a close relationship between the design of clothing and sculpture: both artistic disciplines tend to play with the forms from the volumetric. The sculptor creates in space while the designer uses body volume as a starting point.
References / Inspirations / Artists
Digitalization of the body#
This week we explore different ways to generate a digital body:
Kinect is a 3D webcam sensor for Xbox360, easily hacked to produce 3D scans using Skanect open source software. - To take into account: be sure to scan several times at various angles, pay special attention to the areas where the mesh tends to remain open, that is, the top of the head and the bottom.
In my case I used Make Human to generate the human body, based on my own measurements (From the “Custom” tab).
Detailed measurements in centimeters of my body (necessary to customize the model to scale):
- Head contour: 55 cm
- Circumference Neck: 30 cm
- Shoulders: 40 cm
- Torso (bust): 85 cm
- Arm circumference: 24 cm
- Waist: 60 cm
- Hip: 92 cm
- Uper Leg circumference: 39 cm
- Ankle: 20 cm
Then, export my model in the formats .OBJ and .STL to be able to open them in Rhino and thus be able to edit the volume.
To triangulate the meshes:
Tips when editing in Rhino:#
- Import the file and verify the scale
- To be able to cut the parts of the body that you want to eliminate, it is necessary to create other objects (Volumes, planes) to be used as cutting “blades”. It is important that all the elements with which you work are “meshes”.
- Boolean operations: With this function you can execute different actions: union, split, difference, intersection.
In my case, keeping the head of the mannequin was essential (since it is the central axis of my personal project). For this reason, I had to make sure that the scale of its circumference was correct (57cm corresponding to the average waistline in headgear). To do so, use the command: - Length (which projects a line on the curve to be measured).
Slicer for fusion 360#
Finished the model in Rhino: Export selection (.OBJ or .STL)
- Manufacturing settings: / Edit / enter the dimensions of the material (height, width, thickness) unit of measure= mm
- Construction Technique: in my case I used= Interlocked slices. At that time you can play with the amount of horizontal and vertical layers that you want to apply, as well as the angle and disposition of them
- Modify form: My idea from the beginning was to generate a decreasing gradient from the head to the lower part of the body; with this command I could move and add manually.
- Get plans: It shows the different segments of the 2D model, located in the work plane. The figures that appear in red, is because they have some problem for the correct assembly.
- Assembly steps: It shows a tutorial in 3d of how to successively assemble the layers previously numbered by the program. (according to the horizontal Z axis and vertical Y axis).
Check and adjustment of plans#
Once the plans have been exported in Slicer (.DFX format) they must be checked and edited in Rhino prior to the laser cutting process:
- When opening the file, some lines may appear extruded, it is necessary to convert all the layers in 2D drawing (cut in Blue, engraved in Red).
- At this time you can draw lines and edit details such as: bend joints of lines, delete unnecessary paths … In my case, erase the ears, because in layers its shape was not well appreciated.
- Once the editing of the plans is finished, it is necessary to group each numbered layer and its corresponding lines, using the “join” command.
- You can move some pieces of place to make the most of the surface of the material to be cut.
- Finally, save the plans in Rhino file.
- The first time I exported my plans from Slicer, I forgot to check the “Slot Offset” measurement, so I had to re-edit the plans in Rhino.
- When I export the final files in Rhino I did it in version 6, but in the machine where we made the cut an older version was installed, so use the file in .DFX format. The plans looked good, but at the time of making the first cut, we could see that the engraving lines were broken and delayed the process.Because of this, I had to replace each number drawing by typing one by one (a headache).
FAB LAB / General Guidelines#
- Trotec speedy 300 + Trotec speedy 400
Use of this facility requires the use of standard safety precautions at all times. This includes but is not limited to:
- Never work alone. -Be aware of how to stop the machine to be used, and how to call for help before starting to use any machine.
- Ear protection and dust masks are available and should be worn when necessary.
- Only closed-toe shoes should be worn in the lab areas.
- Long hair has to be tied up. Loose clothes should be tightened, and dangling jewelry should be removed before entering the lab areas. These can get caught on the tools or machines.
- Wear a dust mask when performing grinding or other operations that may generate fine airborne particles.
- Do not leave tools on the machine when you finish. Put them in their allocated place.
- Always be aware of the safe operation of the machines. If you’re unfamiliar with a particular machine, consult the workshop staff before using it.
- Do not make parts in haste. Plan each job and procedure in advance. Determine what material and special tools may be needed.
- Use the dustpan or vacuum to remove chips from a machine while it is not running; this is NOT to be done by hand.
- Each student is required to report all issues, accidents, and tool breakages.
- No food or drinks are allowed in the workshop areas.
- Respect the machines and what they can (and can’t) do; never, ever use the machines for anything other than what they were designed to do, and never tamper, alter, or play with the equipment!
- All students are required to clean the machine and sweep the work area before leaving the lab areas.
To be able to organize ourselves, we setted up a Booking System, which will take the work to organize our machining time and know the accessibility that is available. We will have to previously book a machine to make use of it. .
You must know:
- You should never book a machine if your files are not ready.
- You must have passed the test to use a machine. Failing to do so will invalidate the booking.
- At the end of your booking time, you should let everything clean for the next service.
- The person who makes the reservation is the person who will be allowed to use the time slot.
- Punctuality is important to let everyone use the space.